Damage to a specific area of the brain that controls language expression and comprehension causes Aphasia, a language disability. The medical disorders, according to John Hopkins Medicine, render a person unable to communicate effectively with others and are most common in adults in their middle to late years.
Aphasia is most commonly caused by a stroke or a head injury, but it can also develop slowly as a result of a brain tumour or a progressive neurological disease, according to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. “Aphasia may co-occur with speech disorders, such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech, which are also caused by brain damage,” says the institute.
Stroke, head injury, brain tumour, infection, and dementia are all major causes of speech disorders, according to medical professionals.
This medical condition is divided into two types: fluent and non-fluent. Fluent Aphasia is caused by injury to the temporal lobe of the brain, which enables people to speak in long, entire sentences that have no meaning, to add needless words, and even to make up words.
Meanwhile, patients with Non-fluent Aphasia have damage to the frontal lobe of the brain and frequently experience right-sided weakness or paralysis of the arm and leg, as the frontal lobe is also involved in motor movements.
They may be able to interpret speech and know what they want to say, but they typically talk in short, laboured syllables. According to the National Institute of Health, they frequently skip tiny words like “is,” “and,” and “the.”
Over the years, research in the field has revealed that these brain-controlled activities can be improved. Speech-language therapy, nonverbal communication therapies, and family group therapy all aid in the rehabilitation process.
The National Aphasia Association suggests impairment-based therapy to improve language functions, which includes procedures in which the practitioner directly stimulates specific listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills.